V. Dynamic Imaging for Physical, Chemical & Biological Interests

Dynamic ImagingPresently we are witnessing a revolution in x-ray photon science: New machines, the X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL), deliver pulses of  < 10 fs(1 fs = 10-15 s)  and with peak intensities reaching 1022 W/cm2 in the X-ray regime. We are entering uncharted territory in light-matter interactions with unforeseeable consequences for essentially all disciplines in science. How does matter behave when illuminated with such pulses? What are the fundamental mechanisms and phenomena? Those are the questions to be answered in fundamental physics. In condensed matter physics one wants to explore strongly correlated materials or magnetism raising questions on the dynamics of spin-, charge- and orbital-waves or on how fast a magnetic domain could be switched in polarity. In chemistry the quest for the time- and space-resolved visualization of chemical reactions has been the dream of physical Chemists. Biologists are driven by the vision of realizing single-shot coherent diffractive imaging of individual species. The goal of tracing structural and electronic changes as a function of time and, thus, uncovering the functioning of matter is in fact common to all participating disciplines. This extends to the hope to be able to image in the future, e.g., nanostructures, large molecules, functioning molecules in living cells, etc. on atomic length and time scales i.e. with Ångstrom spatial and femto- to-atto second temporal resolution, without the need for crystallization which is considered a major break-through in structural biology.

This working group consists of the groups taking leading roles worldwide in XFEL developments and science and relevant theoretical developments on ultrafast electron and structure dynamics, as well as performing complementary experiments in the laboratories.  Via this workgroup project, we aim to extend the collaborations, forming a consortium on the use of X-ray free electron lasers, in Japan and Germany as well as in USA and Italy, for physical, chemical and biological interest, for life science and material science , for green and life innovations.

We have had an intense collaboration, following a broad research programme on exploring new avenues in atomic, molecular and cluster sciences opened by FELs and/or new theoretical predictions.  More than 30 common publications have emerged in the last 5 years. We have successful common proposals at the SCSS, SACLA (Japan), FLASH (Germany), LCLS (USA), and FERMI (Italy), i.e., all FEL facilities in the world. We have exchanged students, postdocs and scientists during beam times and have shared the costs. Based on a variety of individual experimental developments of the partners we have joined forces to build instruments at X-FELs for the simultaneous imaging of electrons, ions, fluorescent and scattered photons.

We have been working on the following subjects:

  1. To perform fore-front common experiments at XFEL facilities all over the world, putting special emphasis on using Japanese XFEL SACLA and German FEL FLASH,
  2. To develop next-generation instrumentation for the FEL experiments,
  3. To develop new mathematical and theoretical concepts for describing ultrafast structure and electronic changes in various systems,
  4. To develop image reconstruction algorithms,
  5. To extend the collaboration to colleagues with expertise in different fields from the participating universities.



  • Prof. Kiyoshi Ueda, Tohoku University (Chair)
  • Prof. Simone Techert, University of Göttingen (Co-Chair)
  • Prof. Ei-ichiro Matsubara, Kyoto University
  • Prof. Kazuo Tanaka, Osaka University
  • Prof. Ilme Schlichting, Heidelberg University
  • Prof. Tim Salditt, University of Göttingen
  • Prof. Sarah Koester, University of Göttingen
  • Prof. Hiroshi Fukumura, Tohoku University
  • Prof. Hidetoshi Oikawa, Tohoku University
  • Prof. Makoto Yao, Kyoto University
  • Prof. Toshinori Suzuki, Kyoto University
  • Prof. So Iwata, Kyoto University
  • Prof. Kazuto Yamauchi, Osaka University
  • Prof. Ryousuke Kodama, Osaka University
  • Prof. Lorenz  S. Cederbaum, Heidelberg University
  • Joachim Ullrich, Heidelberg University, Professor (until 2012)


Published Work

  • Z. Yin et al. Zeitschrift fur Phisikalische Chemie-International Journal of Research in Physical Chcemistry & Chemical Physics,229,1855-1867 (2015)
  • K. Schnorr et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 093402 (2013).
  • L. J. Frasinski et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 073002 (2013).
  • H. Iwayama et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164019 (2013).
  • K. Nagaya et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164023 (2013).
  • K. Motomura et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164024 (2013).
  • Y. H. Jiang et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164027 (2013).
  • O. Kornilov et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164028 (2013).
  • B. Erk et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164031 (2013).
  • V. Zhaunerchyk et al. J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 46, 164034 (2013).
  • H. Fukuzawa et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173005 (2013).
  • Anomalous signal from S atoms in protein crystallographic data from an XFEL, T. Barends,   L. Foucar,…, K. Ueda and I. Schlichting, Acta Cryst. D 69, 838 (2013) (SACLA)
  • Deep inner-shell multiphoton ionization by intense XFEL pulses, H. Fukuzawa,…, B. Rudek, B. Erk, L. Foucar,…, K. Ueda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 173005 (2013). (SACLA)
  • Time-resolved measurement of interatomic Coulombic decay in Ne2, K. Schnorr,…, S. Mondal, T. Tachibana, K. Ueda,..., R. Moshammer, Phys. Rev. Lett.111, 093402 (2013). (FLASH)
  • Ultra-Efficient Ionization of Heavy Atoms by Intense X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Pulses, B. Rudek,…, K. Nagaya,…, K. Ueda,…. J. Ullrich, …Nature Photonics 6, 858 (2102). (LCLS)
  • Electron-transfer-mediated decay and interatomic Coulombic decay from the triply ionized states in argon dimers, K. Sakai, S. Stoychev,…H. Fukuzawa, K. Nagaya, M. Yao, …, A. I. Kuleff, …, K. Ueda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 033401 (2011). (SPring-8 vs theory)


Conferences & Symposiums

  • 5th Japanese-German University Presidents' Conference, September 29-30, 2016, Karlsruhe
  • Three half-day satellite workshops were organized in Tohoku University, Sendai, just before and after the HeKKSaGOn meeting in Sendai
    1. Title: Ddynamic imaging: Atomic and Molecular Physics, Chemistry and Biology, (April 16 morning, 7 talks), Cheers: Kiyoshi Ueda (Tohoku U.) and Kazuto Yamauchi (Osaka U.)
    2. Title: Ultrafast chemistry (April 18 morning, 7 talks), Cheers: Simone Techert (Goettingeng U.) and Hidetoshii Oikawa (Tohoku U.)
    3. Title: Ultrafast elecron dynamics (April 18 afternoon, 9 talks), Cheers: Lorenz S. Cederbaum (Heidelberg U.) and Kiyohi Ueda (Tohoku U.)
  • 4th Presidential Conference HeKKSaGOn "Building venues for the creation of new knowledge and values", April 2015, Tohoku University, Sendai
  • Discussion meeting (satellite of Presidential meeting), Göttingen,  Sep. 11-12, 2013 (13 talks) organized by S.Techert & K. Ueda
  • Physical Chemistry Colloquium, Sendai, Sep. 29-30, 2013, chaired by K. Ueda et al. funded by Morino Foundation, IMRAM (Tohoku University), and Chemical Society of Japan.
  • 2nd ISWAMP, Xian, China, July 20 – 22 2013, chaired by D. Ding & K. Ueda
  • 4th Ringberg workshop, Feb. 17-20, 2013, chaired by I. Schlichting & R. Moshammer
  • Discussion meeting (satellite of Presidential meeting), Kyoto, Mar.  28-29, 2012 (10 talks) organized by K. Ueda and M. Yao
  • 3rd Ringberg workshop on Science with FEL, Mar. 4-7, 2012 chaired by J. Ullrich & I. Schlichting
  • Kick-off meeting, Kyoto, Oct. 7- 11, 2011, (13 talks + visit to SPring-8 SACLA site) organized by M. Yao, funded by JSPS, AvH, DAAD, DFG, and MPG.